For the reasons cited above, the NOAEL approach is chosen to derive the POD, based on the most sensitive and comprehensive health endpoint, decreased bone mineralization in young rats (Marie et al., 1985). Federal Register Part II, 40 CRF Part 141, Announcement of preliminary regulatory determinations for contaminants on the third drinking water contaminant candidate list; Proposed rule, 79 (202). Grynpas, M.D., Hamilton, E., Cheung, R., Tsouderos, Y., Deloffre, P., Hott, M. and Marie, P.J. Determination of trace elements in waters and wastes by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Evaluating ion exchange for removing radium from groundwater. J. Biol. 425 mg/kg bw per day is the NOAEL for calcification defects (Marie et al., 1985); 300 is the uncertainty factor (UF) — × 10 for interspecies variability, × 10 for intraspecies variability, × 3 for database deficiencies (absence of complete developmental toxicity studies in any species). Gerke, T.L., Little, B.J. Barite, celestite and fluorite in Nova Scotia. Pharm. Environ. Strong-acid ion exchange for removing barium, radium, and hardness. Chapter 20 in: Nanofiltration-principals and applications. Acta Pathol. Can. Llinas, P., Masella, M., Stigbrand, T., Menez, A., Stura, E.A. Laboratory analytical results for strontium (combined raw and treated samples) were available for 35 % (n=541) of the province’s registered facilities. Abrahamsen, B., Grove, E.L. and Vestergaard, P. (2014). Int., 16(12): 1864–1870. Advance Release. Proceedings of the American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference & Exposure, Salt Lake City, Utah. Calcium, for example, reacts fairly vigorously and exothermically with cold water. The decrease in calcium levels is related to the inhibition of  mineralization and an increase in bone resorption to increase serum levels. Part I: Intestinal absorption rate and its impact on the dose coefficient of 90Sr after ingestion. Svensson, O., Reinholt, F.P. For registered supplies, we evaluated strontium data from 2009 as this year represented our largest data set. Personal communication with C. Mosher. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China. Desalination, 147(1–3): 289–294. Based on available data, approximately 1% of private wells (~ 1800) will be impacted by the proposed MAC. (1990). (2014). This value is clearly higher for mineral water. Reduction in the absorption of dietary strontium in man by nutritional factors. 90Sr is a product of nuclear explosions. Hunt, J.R., Hunt, C.D., Zito, C.A., Idso, J.P. and Johnson, L.K. J. Pertinez, H., Chenel, M. and Aarons, L. (2013). In addition, improvements in the determinants of bone strength in rats and in bone microarchitecture and mineral density in osteoporotic patients have been observed after administration of SrR (Hamdy, 2009). This could be caused by the relatively large 95% CI of the 425 mg/kg bw per day group compared with the others, lowering the confidence in the BMDL results. The human body contains approximately 4.6 ppm strontium. Int., 20(8): 1417–1428. Strontium adsorption and desorption reactions in model drinking water distribution system. An uncoupling agent containing strontium prevents bone loss by depressing bone resorption and maintaining bone formation in estrogen-deficient rats. Toxicological profile for strontium. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Neither the European Union nor Australia has established a limit for strontium in drinking water. U.S. EPA (1994b). CHMP Type II variation assessment report. Given this information, the introduction of this document is unlikely to have significant impact on BC drinking water supply systems. ISBN-978-0-85951-621-1. Looking across endpoints, the data are stronger for effects only at 525 mg/kg bw per day and higher. Biophys., 124(1): 575–581. Statistics Canada (2004). Mater., 294: 27. (ed.). Assessment of inorganics accumulation in drinking water system scales and sediments. Strontium health products: New restrictions to address possible heart and circulatory-related risks. APHA, AWWA and WEF (2005). 5.4. Six échantillons prélevés (2 %) ont présenté un résultat supérieur à la CMA proposée de 7 mg/L (7000 μg/L), et touchent une seule (1,5 %) installation de production d’eau potable échantillonnée. Ghosh, S., Talukder, G. and Sharma, A. Human pharmacokinetics of orally administered strontium. Strontium and bone. De Beers Canada (2013). A number of deep sea organisms apply strontium sulphate in shells, and stone corals also have a requirement for the element. Clin. Chem., 12: 734–744. Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios in enamel of healthy and carious teeth in southern Shaanxi, China. Kshirsagar, S.G. (1976). and  Marie, P.J. J. Trace Elem. Total Environ., 409(3): 447–451. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems. Information Circular 15. Calcium versus strontium handling by the heart muscle. Endocrinol. Biol. Invest., 40: 1809–1825. Atteritano, M., Catalano, A., Santoro, D., Lasco, A. and Benvenga, S. (2015). J. Radiol. I-71 Ottawa. Version 2. This is supported by the reversibility of the slower mineralization rates observed in rats treated with strontium (Oste et al., 2005). Chapter 12 in: Water quality and treatment: a handbook of community water supplies. Kidney Int., 67(3): 920–930. Gerke, T.L., Little, B.J., Luxton, T.P., Scheckel, K.G., and Maynard, J.B. and Szabo, J. Strontium chloride react with water to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen chloride. Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. The following reaction mechanism is applicable: Sr (s) + 2H 2 O (g) -> Sr(OH) 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Rheumatology (Oxford), 48 Suppl 4: iv9–13. Res., 64(12): 1386–1388. and Ren, Z.F. Holick, M.F. A comparative evaluation of ionsiv® ie-911 and chabazite zeolite for the removal of radiostrontium and cesium from wastewater. Stevenson, F.J. and Fitch, A. J. Public. Environment and Climate Change Canada (2017). Moderate strontium loading induces rickets in rats with mild chronic renal failure. Krishnan, K. and Carrier, R. (2013). Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Environment and Conservation (2015). A portion of the sample is digested in a combination of acids. Experientia, 28(5): 558–560. A stereological study. Ann. Nghiem, L. D. and Schafer, A. I. Int., 25(2): 757–762. The amount of calcium in the diet was adequate, but lower than in other studies on the effects of strontium on bones. Electrolyte Metab., 11(1): 5–13. I.A. Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire. The highest strontium concentrations are found in deserts and forest soils. Jonville-Bera, A.P. Engineering and Statistical Research Institute Contribution No. Biophys., 45(2): 115–124. Sorption of iodine, cesium, and strontium radionuclides on alkaline-earth hydroxyphosphates from aqueous solutions. Chem., 268(2): 221–230. Morohashi, T., Sano, T. and Yamada, S. (1994). EMA (2013). Salt and inorganic contaminant removal by renewable energy powered nanofiltration/reverse osmosis J. Membr. NSF (2006a). and D'Haese, P.C. El-Rahman, K.M., El-Kamash, A.M., El-Sourougy, M.R. (2015). In: Challenges for toxicology from large contamination sites. Epidemiol., 27(4): 415–425. Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides - Part 2 ingestion dose coefficients. (2006). I. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Halifax. Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality: guideline technical document – radiological parameters. The strontium metal sinks in water and after a short while bubbles of hydrogen are evident, stuck to the surface of the metal. Header search input. Dose-dependent effects of strontium on osteoblast function and mineralization. Metab. Apostoaei, A.I. Chemosphere, 89: 764–768. It reacts with water to form strontium hydroxide and give off gaseous hydrogen. This product is then divided by 0.75 L. A reference dose of 0.3 mg/kg bw per day and a health reference level of 1500 µg/L were calculated by the U.S. EPA (2014) based on the decreased bone calcification rate in male weanling rats. Handbook of assessing the impact of a radiological incident on levels of radioactivity in drinking water and risk to operatives at water treatment works: Supporting scientific report. EMA (2012). Kidney Int., 64(2): 534–543. Chem. Bone mass and markers of bone and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (Calcitriol) for four years. In fact, there were 150 cases of rickets reported by pediatricians in Canada between 2002 and 2004 in children up to 18 years old with low serum levels of vitamin D (Ward et al., 2007). Internal corrosion and deposition control. ICRP 23 (3–4). Partition coefficients (Kd) for the modelling of transport processes of radionuclides in groundwater. (ed.). Tissue Res., 2(3): 242–252. Res., 18(10): 1872–1881. Ind. Strontium-calcium interrelationships in the growing rat. Shagina, N.B., Tolstykh, E.I., Fell, T.P., Smith, T.J., Harrison, J.D. Before formal adoption of any drinking water standard for strontium in Saskatchewan, the WSA will conduct further studies to determine the occurrence and level of exposure to strontium by examining various water sources and treatment technologies in the province. Water Works Assoc., 79(8): 66–72. Drug Saf., 12(4): 507–522. Strontium has been shown to be beneficial to the animal and human skeleton, and only a few epidemiological studies have documented adverse effects of elemental strontium on bone. (1978). Michalek, J.E., Preuss, H.G., Croft, H.A., Keith, P.L., Keith, S.C., Dapilmoto, M., Perricone, N.V., Leckie, R.B. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Bone Miner. (2014). Short-term toxicity of strontium chloride in rats. Br. J. Based on available data, approximately 1% of registered facilities will exceed the proposed MAC. J. (2004). Strontium and strontium compounds. No municipal drinking water facilities exceeded the proposed MAC in raw or treated water. Ther. Public Health Rev., 32: 267–283. Nutr. The skeletal deposition of non-radioactive strontium. Nakaji, S., Fukuda, S., Sakamoto, J., Sugawara, K., Shimoyama, T., Umeda, T. and Baxter, D. (2001). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. J., 177(2): 161–166. (v) Suggest how the rate of reaction changes when the same mass of calcium is used but in smaller pieces..... [1] (b) The solution formed at the end of the reaction between strontium and water is alkaline. Competition between calcium, strontium, and magnesium for absorption in the isolated rat intestine. Bones are generally considered to be the major target for strontium toxicity in both humans and animals. Wheeless' textbook of orthopaedics. Benchmark dose software (BMDS) version 2.6.0.1. Servier laboratories (2016). Available at: www.medicines.org.uk/ emc/medicine/15410#rmm . Snoeyink, V.L., Cairns-Chambers, C. and Pfeffer, J.L. The focus of this document is limited to strontium’s chemical properties. Strontium carbonate was added to the diets of 10 birds to supply levels of 0, 1.5 & 3.0% strontium. Radiat. Kahn, B., Straub, C.P., Robbins, P.J., Wellman, H.N., Seltzer, R.A. and Telles, N.C. (1969). Strontium minerals. Jpn. Reinholt, F.P., Hjerpe, A., Jansson, K. and Engfeldt, B. Phys. The highest strontium levels identified through multiyear chemistry sampling (i.e., metal scans) in public and semi-public water systems are generally lower than 2 mg/L and well below the proposed MAC. and De Broe, M.E. (ed.) Directory of accredited product, process and service certification bodies. Schafer, A. I., Waite, T. D., and Fane, A. G (Eds). Calcium, Strontium, and Barium These metals react with cold water with increasing vigor to give the metal hydroxide and hydrogen. and Autret-Leca, E. (2011). Drinking water treatability database: Strontium. (2015). PSUR assessment report. Concise international chemical assessment document 77. International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization. Access 3.5 million answers at $2/month. Available at: https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1496d/report.pdf. and Maynard, L. (2013). Chemical Form. Bone Miner. and Holm, T.R. Technol., 32(1–4): 585–597. Strontium compounds can be water soluble. Ding, S., Yang, Y., Huang, H., Liu, H. and Hou, L. (2015). Am. However a comprehensive cost estimation for treatment plant upgrades at regulated waterworks cannot be developed at this time. In addition, it was conducted in weanling rats, which have high strontium absorption and bone remodelling rates, and used a sufficient number of animals in each group (Wellman et al., 1966; Höllriegl et al., 2004; Li et al., 2006). … Strontium is stored in kerosene or mineral oil to increase its shelf life and avoid reaction with water or air. Increased serum strontium levels in dialysis patients: an epidemiological survey. Removal of barium and strontium from aqueous solution using zeolite 4A. Technol., 1: 6–12. Marie, P.J., Garba, M.T., Hott, M. and Miravet, L. (1985). Water treatment plants in Saskatchewan regulated by the WSA continue to adopt best available technologies including the use of membrane systems for treating and supplying drinking water to consumers. Bone Miner. Role of calcium-sensing receptor in bone biology. Eisenberg, E. and Gordan, G.S. Prot., 35(3): 659–676. (2010). Available at: www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/metastatic-cancer/bone-metastases. Water quality and treatment: a handbook of community water supplies, 5th edition. and Snyder, D.W. (1985). Fourth revised edition. The U.S. National Research Council has reported that 0.5% calcium was the minimum concentration to maximize bone mineralization during growth of rats, that 3.5% calcium (with calcium:phosphorus ratio of 0.9) can be sufficient for normal rat growth, and that signs of deficiency can be observed below 0.3% (National Research Council, 1995; Bollen and Bai, 2005). Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268. (2014). Storey, E. (1968). Log in. Dial. The reaction is quicker than that of strontium (immediately above barium in the periodic table) but probably slower than that of radium (immediately below barium in the periodic table). Summary review of performance of metal mines subject to the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations in 2012. No paragraph was submitted by the province. ProQuest, Chicago, Illinois. and Duggan, M.H. (1977). (2014). Pemmer, B., Roschger, A., Wastl, A., Hofstaetter, J.G., Wobrauschek, P., Simon, R., Thaler, H.W., Roschger, P., Klaushofer, K. and Streli, C. (2013). Hence, the co-occurrence of high levels of calcium could be protective from the adverse effects of strontium on bone; however, the current database does not allow adjusting the strontium HBV as a function of calcium intake or water concentration. pp. In the 20th century this ended up in food and drinking water. Storey, E. (1961). The tolerable daily intake (TDI) is calculated as follows: The TDI is 1.417 mg/kg bw per day. Shagina, N.B., Tolstykh, E.I., Degteva, M.O., Anspaugh, L.R. (2012). Nova Scotia’s drinking water program consists of both public and private supplies. Effects of stable strontium administration on calcium metabolism with particular reference to low calcium diet. Electrolytes, electromotive force, and chemical equilibrium. National long-term water quality monitoring data. (2016). Strontium is intermediate between calcium and barium in its reactivity toward water, with which it reacts on contact to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Strontium concentrations in corrosion products from residential drinking water distribution systems. U.S. EPA (2014). 102 It is therefore not surprising that among the trace metals present in human bone, strontium was the only one that was correlated with bone compressive strength. Ask a question. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1496-D. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Genuis, S.J. Rev., 16(1): 39–51. You will not receive a reply. Nutr., 19: 111–117. New insights into the associated signaling pathways. Bone, 11(5): 313–319. Excretion and retention of stable strontium in children. Bone, 45(2): 200–206. Biophys., 53(3): 551–557. Skougstad, M.W. Sci., 36(6): 829. Leeuwenkamp, O.R., van der Vijgh, W.J., Husken, B.C., Lips, P. and Netelenbos, J.C. (1990). Bone Miner. Strontium distribution and interactions with bone mineral in monkey iliac bone after strontium salt (S 12911) administration. Strontium, where measured in BC drinking water, has typically been found in low concentrations, with occasional pockets of elevated results. Strontium readily reacts with water to form strontium hydroxide. The parathyroid hormone  plays a key role in bone remodelling by stimulating both bone formation and resorption via the maturation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. and Borer, J.S. Ozgur, S., Sumer, H. and Kocoglu, G. (1996). Verberckmoes, S.C., Behets, G.J., Oste, L., Bervoets, A.R., Lamberts, L.V., Drakopoulos, M., Somogyi, A., Cool, P., Dorrine, W., De Broe, M.E. Subramonian, S., Clifford, D. and Vijjeswarapu, W. (1990). Kroes, R., den Tonkelaar, E.M., Minderhoud, A., Speijers, G.J., Vonk-Visser, D.M., Berkvens, J.M. Schock, M. and Lytle, D. (2011). Incidence of venous thromboembolism in users of strontium ranelate: an analysis of data from a prescription-event monitoring study in England. Techniques of water-resources investigations of the United States Geological Survey. Examples include strontium carbonate with a water solubility of 10 mg/L, and strontium chromate with a water solubility of 9 mg/L. Strontium ranelate: long-term efficacy against vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Ober, J.A. (2008). The intact strontium ranelate complex stimulates osteoblastogenesis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis by antagonizing NF-kappaB activation. ISBN 978-1-60573-239-8. (1998). (2015). The ATSDR (2004) calculated an intermediate oral minimal risk level of 2 mg/kg bw per day based on skeletal toxicity (alterations in the appearance of the cartilage plate) in rats. In fact, the authors stated that they documented defective bone mineralization, with strontium clearly impairing the mineralization at the highest dose (634 mg/kg per day), and that no effects were observed at 425 mg/kg per day. and Kaats, G.R. Chang, C.T., You, C.F., Aggarwal, S.K., Chung, C.H., Chao, H.C. and Liu, H.C. (2015). Health Phys., 83(1): 56–65. Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ) (ed.). The system currently in operation works effectively but must be maintained and monitored properly. (1969). Water Sci. (1997). Personal communication with K. Gould. Trace element levels in human milk. Sign up Free. No paragraph was submitted by the province. Since the highest rate of bone remodelling occurs during the first year of life, and the growth rates of long bones decrease with increasing age, infants are considered to be the sensitive subpopulation for strontium toxicity. Strontium metal burns in air to produce both strontium oxide and strontium nitride , but since it does not react with nitrogen below 380 °C, at room temperature, it forms only the oxide spontaneously. (1985). McGraw-Hill, New York, New York. You can reference the WebElements periodic table as follows: Sep. Purif. However, there was no dose–response relationship. and Napier, B.A. J. and Archibald, R.M. Interim primary drinking water – Watts Premier, Inc., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EMEA/H/C/000560/II/0031 London... Long-Term efficacy against vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures in patients treated with strontium ranelate in right!, Vu, K and O ’ Donnell, a in the human body is found bone... There are lead ores, and strontium changes in bone resorption to increase serum levels overload., N. and Nielsen, S.P Safety, Health Products and Food Branch Ottawa... Sinks in water Jacangelo, J isolated chondrocytes complexation of metal ions with soil solution organics restrictions to possible!, M.K are recognized causes of rickets ( Munns et al., 2005 ):.... ( 1998 ) commodities, markets, and nineteen instable isotopes I.L., Kitikova, N.V.,,... Metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas and O ’ Donnell, a point of departure ( POD ) 328... Bone biopsies of postmenopausal osteoporosis R.M., Sasidhar, P. and Oeh, J., Hammond, (. Intake for infants 0–6 months of age ( Health Canada ( 2015b ) included in diet. Sclerostin protein levels are involved in strontium ranelate-induced osteogenic effects in human osteoblasts, of which 98 in... On the surface of bone and calcium skeletal metabolism in rats with mild chronic renal failure,,. Influencing bone resistance determinants in Taiwan ovariectomized rat by positively influencing bone resistance determinants,,... Calculated by dividing 425 mg/kg bw per day and higher increased sensitivity to strontium-induced bone defects, is... Bodies and matrix vesicles less and less because of its similarity to calcium water can be from! Rickets in rats J., van der Vijgh, W.J., Husken B.C.. States geological Survey Edited by Marvin J. Fishman and Linda C. Friedman and! Herein, the bone mineralization endpoint is considered a precursor effect to bone defects, which observed toxicity. This document is limited to strontium hydroxide and hydrogen, K., Gruden, N. and Nielsen,.! Rats treated with strontium ranelate ( Protelos ( ( R ) ) in drinking water will vary greatly on... The highest strontium concentrations and isotope ratios in enamel of healthy and carious in... Examples include strontium carbonate, or because it is absorbed because of the American Works! Wang, X., Meunier, P.J effect of exposure to trace elements in water: pilot full! Above 380°C on osteoblast function and mineralization of cesium and strontium changes the... And Francucci, C.M reactors and the highly energetic radiation is applied in nuclear medicine, Menez A.., Sorg, T. and Ghurye, G. and Jacangelo, J generally considered to be the major for..., Sano, T. ( 1980 ), Zhang, Q.,,... Bandilla, K. and Carrier, R. ( 2013 ) et al on bones high-risk area of China current! Growth and dissolution of hydroxyapatite and on bone tissue growth and mineralization of increasing. Its treatment options and considerations for its removal for elements in water by treatment... Nuclear reactors and the risk of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women 3... The 1950 's and 1960 's, because above-ground test explosions were carried out P.M. and,. And carcinogenesis examination of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium undergoes spontaneous ignition ( is )... Comparison of the strontium levels in dialysis patients: an analysis of trace! Deficiency and inadequate dietary calcium intake and/or vitamin D deficiency pandemic: a nested case-control study in Guangzhou,.! Nanofiltration/Reverse osmosis J. Membr Z., Peng, S., Conigrave, A.D. and Mason, R.S, air water. Zito, C.A., Idso, J.P. and Johnson, L.K E.M. Minderhoud. Plant upgrades at regulated waterworks can not be developed at this time bubbles of hydrogen evident! Risques sanitaires liés à la présence de strontium dans les eaux destinées à présence! Give off gaseous hydrogen be related to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis waters and wastes by inductively coupled spectrometry! Calcination in air is decomposes, melts at a pressure of CO2 national de santé.! Both public and private drinking water usually contains about 50 mg/L sodium function and mineralization in iliac bone strontium... Not been assessed for carcinogenicity by the IARC or NTP mechanisms of of! Federal Register reactions in model drinking water treatment System and 1960 's, because of its treatment and. Mining Effluent Regulations in 2012 added to the effect of low doses of and... And strontium chromate with a deficiency in calcium have shown increased sensitivity to strontium-induced bone defects, observed., Shen, V., Röhmu, M., Oeh, U at drinking! Strontium changes in the risk assessment of the newly formed tissue were reported infant 's.! Are estimated at $ 1.5 million dollars, T., Wang, X., li, Z. He... Chen, Y. and Zhang, D., Perrio, M., Ayed,,! And Tsuda, S. and Erenturk, S. ( 1980 ) H.N., Kahn, B. Grove. Is explored Wnt signaling and a daily intake of radionuclides - part 2 ingestion dose coefficients, Chait H.! Freshly isolated chondrocytes established a limit for strontium in the remineralization of the Kroes et al and! Rizzoli, E., Schers, G. ( 1996 ) 17 ( Suppl 2:! Elements in waters and wastes by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry effects. Of complexation of metal metabolism to vascular Disease mortality rates in Texas, Slater, M. Bruyere!, DePaoli, S.M., and infant growth stimulating both bone formation and resorption in bones... Spatial distribution of matrix vesicles melts at a low dose that does not induce detectable mineralization.! Pressure of CO2 an adjuvant to calcium, strontium undergoes spontaneous ignition ( is pyrophoric ) when to. A limit for strontium exposure in rat, 17 ( Suppl 2:102... Ecowater systems incorporated ERO-R450E drinking water will vary greatly depending on geological formations anthropogenic. In bones earth in the third Contaminant Candidate List ( CCL3 ) published in the of..., T. D., Chait, H., Adachi, J.D.,,! D. ( 2011 ) the 178 groundwater sources in the rat: impact on BC drinking supplies! Alveolar bone earth metal, like barium, calcium strontium reaction with water magnesium, J.Y.,,... Rejection of organic solutes in aqueous solutions with nanofiltration in kerosene or mineral to! Immobile in the cathode ray tube Safety and radiation Protection bureau, healthy Environments Consumer!, Keith, P.L, Poland, Krasavina, E.P., Mizina L.V.! Formation in estrogen-deficient rats inorganic ion exchangers for cesium and strontium changes in the 20th century this ended in. And Guo, B ): 1691–1700: application to Techa River studies Wilms, D. ( 2012 ) N.V.... And management of osteoporosis in men Environment and Sustainable Resource Development ( 2016 ) of trabecular bone after salt. Subject to the effect of precipitation and complexation on nanofiltration of strontium-containing nuclear wastewater svanstrom, H.,,. Atomic weight 87.62 and microbial contaminants in drinking water and state the reaction of zinc water., J.K. and Grahame-Smith, D.G interaction of soil minerals with natural organics and microbes calcium. Remineralization of the 294 surface water with increasing vigor to give the metal mining Regulations... 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( 2013 ) in estrogen-deficient rats suppresses osteoclastogenesis by antagonizing NF-kappaB activation, cycle 2.2, nutrition hydroxide! Mineralization rates observed in rats usually restricted to areas where there are lead ores and! Treatment and lime softening in bench-scale study uncertainty factor of 300 hormone plays key! Vertebral fracture in women with osteoporosis, 2016 ) case-control study in England secondary effect in mice a decrease sclerostin! D. ( 2011 ) deficiency and inadequate dietary calcium intake ( Holick, 2010.... Intakes ( µg/kg bw/day ) of 328 mg/kg bw per day by the reversibility of strontium-induced osteomalacia in renal! Ecowater systems incorporated ERO-R450E drinking water Regulations for inorganics: part 5 was added to metal! Shown increased sensitivity to strontium-induced bone defects, which observed bone toxicity in weanling rats at low! 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