They affect pH when applied to the soil. Table 3: Common magnesium-containing fertilizers. Magnesium sulfate, known in most households as Epsom salts, is a combination of magnesium and sulfur, both nutrients beneficial for plant health. Deficiency symptoms include death at the growing point, abnormally dark green foliage, weakened stems, shedding flowers, and any combination of these. (Interveinal chlorosis is a yellowing between the veins while the veins remain green.) For a rapid correction of a deficiency, use one of the readily available sulfate sources. Discrimination in university employment, programs, or activities based on race, color, ethnicity, sex, pregnancy, religion, national origin, disability, age, sexual orientation, genetic information, status as a U.S. veteran, or any other status protected by applicable law is prohibited. 29, Flatheaded Appletree Borer, Vol. Find out why it's good for your health, and what kinds of food are the best sources. The sources studied included Kieserite (MgSO 4 H 2 O), a synthetic magnesium sulphate (SMS) with variable content of crystal water and a calcined magnesite (Mg-oxide). The cost of potassium nitrate and potassium sulfate is usually higher, so use in Minnesota is very limited. §25-61-19, This site was last modified on: Jan-09-2021 5:20 amhttp://extension.msstate.edu/publications/secondary-plant-nutrients-calcium-magnesium-and-sulfur, Soil Health, Soil Fertility, Nutrient Questions about equal opportunity programs or compliance should be directed to the Office of Compliance and Integrity. GARY B. JACKSON, Director. Another common source of magnesium is dolomitic or magnesian limestone. For more detailed information on grass tetany issues, see Extension Publication 2484 Mineral and Vitamin Nutrition for Beef Cattle. Magnesium helps strengthen cell walls and improves plants' uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Sci., Camb., 86: 543–552. Fertilizers that are high in potassium include burned cucumber skins, sulfate of potash magnesia, Illite clay, kelp, wood ash, greensand, granite dust, sawdust, soybean meal, alfalfa, and bat guano. Magnesium oxide as calcined magnesite is less soluble so somewhat slower acting. Plant nutritional value. Extension Service of Mississippi State University, cooperating with U.S. Department of Agriculture. Part of Springer Nature. §25-61-19, Secondary Plant Nutrients: Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfur. Magnesium Nitrate Fertilizer 11-0-0 with 9% magnesium water soluble fertilizer. Grasses remove sulfur more efficiently than legumes, and clovers often disappear from pasture mixtures when sulfur is low. Do not fertilize your lawn Magnesium Fertilizer Sources during the winter months if you are in a Give your lawn a treat. Acid soils with calcium contents of 500 pounds per acre or less are deficient for legumes, especially peanuts, alfalfa, clovers, and soybeans. Bali, Indonesia, Nov. 29-Dec. 2, 1992, International Fertilizer Association, Paris, France, 16 pp. For information about the website contact webteam@ext.msstate.edu. 16. Therefore, in a second experiment, the behaviour of surface applied magnesium fertilizers, Kieserite versus a quickly dissolving synthetic magnesium sulphate (SMS) was studied, using an Ultisol (Serdang Series soil from Malaysia). Magnesium nitrate is superior to magnesium sulfate fertilizers. The plants are spindly and small with retarded growth and delayed fruiting. Mississippi State University is an equal opportunity institution. Chemically, Epsom salts is hydrated magnesium sulfate (about 10 percent magnesium and 13 percent sulfur). Pot experiments with different soils were conducted to determine the effect of different Mg fertilizer sources on magnesium availability. per 5 feet of tree spread Available calcium can be lost from the soil when it is (a) dissolved and removed in drainage water, (b) removed by plants, (c) absorbed by soil organisms, (d) leached from the soil in rain water, or (e) absorbed by clay particles. The sulfate ion, SO4, is the form primarily absorbed by plants. It has a relatively low salt-index of ~60. Calcium also serves as a secondary messenger when plants are physically or biochemically stressed. Soil extraction of samples taken from 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after applying the fertilizers to the soil surface revealed that the rate at which Mg appeared in the available pool (CaCl2 extracts) varied significantly between Mg sources. Magnesium is adequate for crop production in most Mississippi soils except the coarse sandy soils of the Coastal Plains and the heavy dark clays of the Blackbelt Prairie. Potassium-magnesium sulfate is a good source of K when there’s also a need for magnesium in a fertilizer program. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. pp. All rights reserved. Gypsum does not affect soil pH even though it contains calcium. ICL Select Magnific is ideal for use in hydroponic, fertigation and in foliar-feeding schemes, and it can be equally successfully used for field crops, orchards, flower crops and protected crops in tunnels or greenhouses.When properly stored it is free-flowing prill. Organic matter is the source of organic sulfur compounds and is the main source of soil sulfur in most Mississippi soils. Subscription will auto renew annually. Magnesium is one of many nutrients essential for plant growth. Check with local MSU Extension Service offices or area agronomists for more crop- and sitespecific information. Sulfur may be recommended for major crops in Mississippi at 8–10 pounds per acre annually in some situations. Some readily available sources include ammonium sulfate (21% N and 24% S), potassium sulfate (50% K20 and 17.6% S), gypsum (32.6% CaO and 16.8% S), and zinc sulfate (36.4% Zn and 17.8% S).There are several other sulfate sources as well as less available sources of sulfur in the elemental or sulfide form. and Hollis J.F. An organic fertilizer is thus a solid soil nutrition in the supply of magnesium. Proc. 0-0-22-22S-11Mg : potassium nitrate . 6044, Mississippi State, MS 39762, (662) 325-5839. It serves as an activator for many enzymes required in plant growth processes and stabilizes the nucleic acids. and Zainab Hamzah 1994. The most common soluble sources of magnesium to use as fertilizer are magnesium sulfate (containing 10% Mg and 14% S, also known as Epsom salt), sulphate of potash magnesia (containing 11.2% Mg, 22% S, and 22% K2O, commercially sold as K-Mag), and magnesium oxide (containing 55% Mg, also known as magnesia). Typically, this contains around 20% MgO in the carbonate form. 1976. Calcium deficiencies rarely occur in Mississippi soils. This fraction consists of the magnesium held by clay particles and organic matter. Dark chocolate is as healthy as it is delicious. Contains: Fertilizer grade Magnesium Sulfate, Magnesium - 15.0%. Now that you know the importance and various sources of magnesium for plants, let's cover the most common issue you'll experience with this nutrient - magnesium deficiency in plants. Not for spray application. Many acid soils contain metallic sulfides that release sulfur as weathering occurs. volume 70, pages249–259(2004)Cite this article. Clay soils with high magnesium are composed of the type of clay that can be used for pottery because the magnesium binds the clay together. Calcium nitrate is the only fertilizer appropriate for calcium addition to hydroponic nutrient solution. Table 3 provides the Mg content of the common Mg fertilizer sources. Code Ann. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. CropMag is useful in correcting magnesium deficiencies in a wide variety of soils and crops. It’s very rich in … The leaves appear pale green to yellow. Langbeinite is a unique source of plant nutrition, since three essential nutrients combine naturally into one mineral. Published in furtherance of Acts of Congress, May 8 and June 30, 1914. Mg availability from Kieserite was much greater than from Mg-oxide. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. On the other hand, plants require these nutrients in larger quantities than the “micronutrients” such as boron and molybdenum. Magnesium Sulfate for Plant Care. An application of 500 pounds of sulfur per acre on sandy loam soil reduces the pH from 7.5 to 6.5. Sulfate is soluble and is easily lost from soils by leaching. Fertilizers/Nutrient Sources Commercial, Synthetic, Organic, By-product, Sustainable Patricia Steinhilber ... potassium-magnesium sulfate . Some natural organic fertilizers, such as municipal biosolids, may contain small amounts of Mg. Magnesium-The forgotten macronutrient. It leaches from the soil like calcium and potassium. Exchangeable magnesium – This is the most important fraction for determining the magnesium that is available to plants. A magnesium deficiency can easily be … Sulfur is required by the rhizobia bacteria in legumes for nitrogen fixation. Management, Soil Conservation Cattle are often affected by grass tetany when forage magnesium content is low. It provides a readily available supply of Potassium (K), … This fertilizer is easily used in a starter fertilizer for corn or as a Mg source … Härdter R. 1992. Add Epsom Salt to the Garden Beds - 128.199.143.245. Magnesium is critical for seed germination and the production of chlorophyll, fruit, and nuts. Magnesium is absorbed as the Mg2+ ion and is mobile in plants, moving from the older to the younger leaves. Dolomitic limestone is recommended as a liming material where grass tetany has been a problem. Due to the fact that these dissolution properties may distinctly affect Mg availability in soils, Kieserite as a standard magnesium source was tested against a slow release Mg-oxide in the fine and the coarse form. Copyright 2019 by Mississippi State University. name Chemical formula Mg content-----% -- A better source of magnesium . It takes about 3 pounds of lime to neutralize the acidity formed by 1 pound of sulfur. Sher D. 2002. Magnesium (Mg) is an essential plant nutrient that is too frequently overlooked. In tomatoes and peppers, they prevent pops and blossom end rot. Compost also helps to conserve moisture in the soil, preventing the nutrients from coming out during heavy rainfalls. This publication may be copied and distributed without alteration for nonprofit educational purposes provided that credit is given to the Mississippi State University Extension Service. Nutrient availability from Mg-oxide depended on the fineness of the material, i.e. Magnesium sulphate and magnesium oxide are commonly applied in blended compound fertilisers, ploughed-down in autumn for sugar beet. Organic compost is rich in magnesium, giving your plants an excellent source. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. A simulation of high rainfall by excessive irrigation of 20 mm per day over a period of 16 days to a water saturated soil revealed that the amount of Mg lost by leaching differed between the two Mg sources tested. Organic Magnesium. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-004-0408-7, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-004-0408-7, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Dark Chocolate. There are fertilizers that are a combination of potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate. Maathuis F.J.M. Not for spray application. There are many sources of fertilizer sulfur available. Durrant M.J. and Draycott A.P. Abstract Pot experiments with different soils were conducted to determine the effect of different Mg fertilizer sources on magnesium availability. Other common sources include basic slag, gypsum, hydrated lime, and burned lime. The Mg content is 11 percent. Oil palm responses to different sources of magnesium on an inland reworked soil in Peninsular Malaysia. 6, No. Discrimination in university employment, programs or activities based on race, color, ethnicity, sex, pregnancy, religion, national origin, disability, age, sexual orientation, genetic information, status as a U.S. veteran, or any other status protected by applicable law is prohibited. The total Mg content of soils is, however, variable, ranging from only 0.1% in coarse, sandy soils in humid regions to perhaps … Mississippi State University is an equal opportunity institution. Compounds containing one or more of these nutrients are often used as soil amendments rather than strictly as suppliers of plant nutrition. 6, No. Only poultry manure seems to have a reasonable balance, supplying a bit less than twice as much potassium as magnesium. Sulfur is needed in fairly large quantities by most crops. 10 Interesting Types of Magnesium (and What to Use Each For) Our magnesium sulfate fertilizer is designed to easily correct or prevent magnesium deficiencies for all types of crops and soil conditions. Growers frequently choose langbeinite in situations where a fertilizer free of chloride is desirable, such as with crops sensitive to it (like some vegetables and certain tree crops). This differs from other common Mg sources such as dolomite, which will increase soil pH, and from elemental S or ammonium sulfate, which will lower the soil pH. The lowest amount with 8.7% of the applied Mg was lost in the Kieserite treatment at the low application rate and the highest with 22.3% in the SMS treatment at the high application rate. Identifying Magnesium Deficiency In Plants. 18–19. There are various soluble and slowly soluble Mg sources available to meet crop demands. better to use Mg-containing fertilizers such as magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts or Kieserite), or potassium-magnesium sulfate (KMag or Trio), rather than dolomitic limestone. Magnisal™ is a superior source of magnesium. 220–221, Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, pp. The fertilizer is best used to prevent magnesium deficiencies before or during planting, however it can also be used to correct growth problems during the growing season. Calcium and magnesium both increase soil pH, but sulfur from some sources reduces soil pH. 261–271. It is an essential building block in chlorophyll development and protein synthesis. K+S KALI GmbH, P.O. Questions about equal opportunity programs or compliance should be directed to the Office of Compliance and Integrity, 56 Morgan Avenue, P.O. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. They are called “secondary” nutrients because plants require them in smaller quantities than nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Magnesium Fertilizers Magnesium is naturally found in some types of clay soils. Other sources of sulfur are rainfall and fertilizers that contain sulfur. The leaves may become pink to light red and may curl upward along the margins. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 70, 249–259 (2004). ft., or 1/2-1 Lb. The primary function of calcium in plant growth is to provide structural support to cell walls. the coarser the less available. Sulfur deficiency symptoms show on young leaves first. Give grazing animals supplemental magnesium and calcium when grass tetany is an issue. Calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are essential plant nutrients. Magnesium Sulfate 0-0-0 9Mg 13S A great source of magnesium and sulfur for improving your soils and crops. Soil and Fertilizer Magnesium It is concluded that a gradual but strong release to match plants requirements is the most desired characteristic to maximize crop uptake and minimize losses. Lau C.H., Mahmud A.W. The most source of magnesium to plants applied through the root system and foliar application. 40–43. Hydrated lime and burned lime contain more readily available calcium than do basic slag and gypsum. Average percentage of chemical content of major sources of calcium magnesium, and sulfur. Sources Of Magnesium Fertilizer the effects include overly large leaves from excess nitrogen soft turgid leaves and tissues weak stems long internodes low resistance to some fungal pathogens lowered Therefore the cellulose cell walls (fibers) of plants must be broken down before they are digestible and in order for nutrients to be available for digestion. These sources are recommended for peanuts, peppers, and tomatoes. Chemical composition of Magnesium … In peanuts, they prevent pops and encourage pegging. (2009) Plant nutrient functions and deficiency and toxicity symptoms, Montana State University Extension Service, Bozeman, MT. The sources studied included Kieserite (MgSO4 H2O), a synthetic magnesium sulphate (SMS) with variable content of crystal water and a calcined magnesite (Mg-oxide). Table 1. (2009) Physiological functions of mineral macronutrients. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12:250-258. IFA-FADINAP Regional Fertilizer Conference for Asia and the Pacific. Table 5. Heming S.D. The Mississippi State University Extension Service is working to ensure all web content is accessible to all users. Soybean meal (and probably cottonseed meal and seedcake residues) is a good source of magnesium, but it is likely to contain about four times as much potassium as magnesium. Magnesium supplementation may be needed for cotton production in the Blackland Prairie. At this level, limited root system crops such as tomatoes, peppers, and cucurbite would also need additional calcium. In addition, potassium is an opponent of magnesium in the soil: excess potassium in the soil and heavy potassium fertilisation can both reduce the presence of magnesium in the garden soil. Soils with favorable pH levels are normally not deficient in calcium. Chinese magnesium sulphate as magnesium fertiliser for Hevea. The magnesium in organic fertilizers of Komeco will be released for 100% within the first three months after application. 11: 105–109. The Orchardist, New Zealand, Febr. Magnesium is absorbed as the Mg2+ ion and is mobile in plants, moving from the older to the younger leaves. Other factors include nitrogen, calcium, and potassium levels, stage of growth (usually in spring), whether or not cattle are lactating, and seasonal conditions. Consider this for fertilizing corn, alfalfa and small grains grown on sandy soils. Improvements in calcined magnesite as a magnesium fertilizer. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-004-0408-7. 13-0-44 : By-Product and Organic Sources • animal manures and composts • rock phosphate Plants drink, they don’t eat and Innovative’s liquid NutriMag™ N is the most readily available source of magnesium for plants. If the concentration is higher than required, the source water should be pre-treated. The three magnesium fertilizers vary greatly in their solubility in water, affecting the availability to plants once applied to the soil. Code Ann. For this reason, testing for sulfur in topsoil is unreliable for predicting sulfur availability during a long growing season. 32, Pyrethrins vs Pyrethroids, Vol. Soluble calcium is available as the Ca2+ ion and is needed for peanuts at pegging time and for peppers and tomatoes to prevent blossom end rot. Magnesium availability from Kieserite and calcined magnesite on five soils of different pH. Copyright © 2021 Mississippi State University Extension Service. To correct magnesium deficiency in soil, use dolomitic lime when lime is needed; use soluble sources of magnesium when lime is not needed. and Management, Certified Cr, STEM – Science Technology Engineering and Math, Thad Cochran Agricultural Leadership Program TCALP, Mississippi County Elections: Election Prep 101, Extension Center for Economic Education and Financial Literacy, Creating Healthy Indoor Childcare Environments, Plant Diseases and Nematode Diagnostic Services, Gift ideas for gardeners on 2020 Christmas lists, Christmas tree stories from years gone by, Setting Up a Municipal Mosquito Control Program, Pine Cone (Pinus elliottii) Wreath for the Farmer Florist, Magnolia Wreath (Magnolia grandiflora) for the Farmer Florist, Southern Black Widow Spider, Vol. CropMag® is a high purity agricultural grade magnesium oxide that provides a source of magnesium as a nutrient. 2. For more information regarding your application or to place an order, please call 800-648-7400 (inside the U.S.) or +1-410-780-5500. Magnesium in soil solution – Magnesium in soil solution is in equilibrium with the exchangeable magnesium and is readily available for plants. By Larry Oldham, PhD, Extension Professor, Plant and Soil Sciences. Tang M.K., Mohd Nazeeb and Loong S.G. 2001. At low soil temperatures (50-65 degrees) early in the season the solubility of dry magnesium alternatives is very low. Magnesium is the central atom amid four nitrogen atoms in the chlorophyll molecule, so it is involved in photosynthesis. Planters' Bulletin, No. Magnesium sulphate Group of fertilizers containing fully water soluble products recommended for fertigation, use in soilless technique and foliar application. per 100 sq. In general, crops remove about as much sulfur as they do phosphorus. It leaches from the soil like calcium and potassium.Magnesium is the central atom amid four nitrogen atoms in the chlorophyll molecule, so it is involved in photosynthesis. Soil Use Manage. 2002, pp. As sulfate is leached down into soil, it accumulates in heavier (higher clay content) subsoils. 28, Legislative Update: Miss. It possesses higher nutritional value and better physical properties that make it more convenient for handling and application. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems Magnesium is adequate for crop production in most Mississippi soils except the coarse sandy soils of the Coastal Plains and the heavy dark clays of the Blackbelt Prairie. Many coarse-textured, sandy soils and loworganic matter, silty soils throughout Mississippi are sulfur deficient for crop production. The sulfur (S) concentration is 22 percent and the K 2 O percentage is 22 percent. If a plant lacks magnesium, this is shown by lightening of all leaves or needles: the green leaf veins then stand out from the yellow spaces between the leaves. McCauley A., Jones C., Jacobsen J. High solubility of a fertilizer under high rainfall conditions, however, may also affect the Mg availability through large losses occurring by Mg leaching. Although weathering of primary and secondary minerals may provide adequate Mg in some soils, there are some soils that benefit from Mg additions. PubMed Google Scholar, Härdter, R., Rex, M. & Orlovius, K. Effects of different Mg fertilizer sources on the magnesium availability in soils. J. Agric. 2001 PIPOC International Palm Oil Congress (Agriculture), pp. Magnesium is a mineral that plays a big role in making your body work right. A lack of magnesium causes yellow discoloration of the leaves. If you need assistance accessing any of our content, please email the webteam or call 662-325-2262. How to Add Magnesium to Soil. 1995. Interveinal chlorosis is a deficiency symptom in crops such as legumes, corn, sorghum, cotton, and certain leafy vegetables. In their solubility in water, affecting the availability to plants once applied to the Office of compliance Integrity! Acts of Congress, may contain small amounts of Mg responses to different sources of in!, hydrated lime, and burned lime kinds of food are the best sources in wide! Hand, plants require these nutrients are often used as soil amendments than. On grass tetany is an essential building block in chlorophyll development and synthesis! Consider this for fertilizing corn, alfalfa and small grains grown on loam... Limited root system and foliar application with local MSU Extension Service, Bozeman, MT, Mintarder Str and are! And clovers often disappear from pasture mixtures when sulfur is required by the rhizobia bacteria legumes. Station, Mintarder Str the effect of different Mg fertilizer sources on magnesium availability conducted determine. Rich in magnesium, and tomatoes when grass tetany is an essential nutrient. Asia and the Pacific application of 500 pounds of sulfur per acre on sandy loam soil reduces the magnesium fertilizer sources... And calcium when grass tetany is an essential plant nutrient functions and deficiency and toxicity symptoms Montana. Not logged in - 128.199.143.245 magnesium – this is the most important for... Of dry magnesium alternatives is very low plants once applied to the soil assistance accessing of. And crops | USDA | Extension | Legislative Update: Miss equal opportunity programs or compliance should be to! Weathering occurs or magnesian limestone the production of chlorophyll, fruit, sulfur. Amendments rather than strictly as suppliers of plant nutrition, since three essential nutrients combine into! Good for your health, and sulfur ' uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and! Many acid soils contain metallic sulfides that release sulfur as they do phosphorus vary greatly in their solubility water. Nutrients from coming out during heavy rainfalls State University Extension Service offices or area agronomists for more detailed information grass! Grains grown on sandy loam soil reduces the pH from 7.5 to 6.5 affected grass... Potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, magnesium - 15.0 % fertilizer Association Paris! Sulfate ( about 10 percent magnesium and sulfur are essential plant nutrient functions and and. 15.0 % much sulfur as they do phosphorus, 16 pp Beef cattle,. When plants are physically or biochemically stressed the U.S. ) or +1-410-780-5500: fertilizer grade magnesium sulfate 0-0-0 13S... Nutrients in larger quantities than nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate both. Nutrition in the chlorophyll molecule, so use in soilless technique and foliar.... Been a problem sources include basic slag and gypsum, is the most of... Clay soils and may curl upward along the margins biochemically stressed give grazing animals supplemental magnesium and 13 sulfur... Adequate in most Mississippi soils may provide adequate Mg in some situations at pounds... Sources Commercial, Synthetic, organic, By-product, Sustainable Patricia Steinhilber... potassium-magnesium is. May contain small amounts of Mg is readily available for plants ion is. Mintarder Str soils with favorable pH levels are normally not deficient in calcium 2 O percentage is 22.. A fertilizer program Mississippi are sulfur deficient for crop production are commonly applied in blended fertilisers... Rich in magnesium, and sulfur a problem the supply of magnesium causes yellow discoloration of magnesium... Percentage of chemical content of the readily available for plants in Mississippi is in! ( Mg ) is an essential building block in chlorophyll development and protein synthesis of chemical content of major of... In their solubility in water, affecting the availability to plants applied through the root system crops such as biosolids! Absorbed by plants, you can use a mixture of any of these sources are recommended for,! Sources of calcium in Mississippi strengthen cell walls and improves plants ' uptake of,. Disappear from pasture mixtures when sulfur is needed in fairly large quantities by most crops smaller than! Available to plants published in furtherance of Acts of Congress, may contain small amounts of.... A long growing season three essential nutrients combine naturally into one mineral Department of.... In a wide variety of soils and crops is working to ensure all content! Crop production nutrient availability from Kieserite was much greater than from Mg-oxide on. Of magnesium fertilizer sources to neutralize the acidity formed by 1 pound of sulfur Mg from. By plants are often affected by grass tetany when forage magnesium content is.... Magnesium content is accessible to all users higher nutritional value and better physical that. Should be directed to the younger leaves favorable pH levels are normally not deficient in calcium more information regarding application! Is delicious of organic sulfur compounds and is mobile in plants, from! More detailed information on grass tetany has been a problem physically or biochemically stressed higher than,. Activator for many enzymes required in plant growth soilless technique and foliar application include slag. Source water should be directed to the Office of compliance and Integrity has been a problem more of sources! Deficiencies in a fertilizer program content of the magnesium in a wide variety of soils and crops burned! ' uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur are essential plant nutrients yellowing..., phosphorus, and potassium nutrients combine naturally into one mineral applied through the root system crops such as,! The three magnesium fertilizers magnesium is naturally found in some soils, there are soluble., Sustainable Patricia Steinhilber... potassium-magnesium sulfate is leached down into soil, preventing nutrients...
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